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牛津高中英语 M7U3图表类作文写作模式(hao)

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M7U3 图表式作文写作指导
Section A 写作指导

1. (There was) a great /slight increase /rise in…: (在…方面)有大的/轻微的增加/上升。

2012/6/1

The number of students has reached 500, indicating a rise of 20%, compared with last semester. 学生人数达到 500 人,与上学期相比上升了 20%。 2. There has been a sudden/slow/rapid decline/ fall /drop in…,reaching… 在…方面有突然地 / 缓慢的 / 快速的下降, 达到…。 3. It is 20% lower/higher than…:…比…低/高 20%。 The output of grain this year is 20% lower than that of last year. 4. The number /rate has nearly doubled, as against that of last year. 与去年相比,数字/ 比率几乎翻了一倍。 5. The number is …times as much as that of…:数字是…的几倍。 Our income this year is 3 times as much as that of last year. 6. It increases/rises/decreases/reduces by?/?% / two thirds. …增加/上升/减少了…。 7. By comparison with?/ Compared with…, it decrease / increase / fall from…to…: 与…相比,它从…减少/ 增加/ 下降到…。 Compared with that company, our sales figures have fallen from 10000 to 589. It falls from 50% in 2000 to 30% in 2004, and then the trend reverse, finishing at 58% in 2005. 它从 2000 年的 50%降到 2004 年的 30%, 然后形势逆转, 2005 年达到 58%。 8. …sink/drop/reduce to… 减少到… The rate of strikes sank/dropped to the lowest point in 1979. 9. … experience a decrease/decline …有了减少 Tobacco consumption is experiencing a decrease. 10、起伏 ① …go up and down …起伏不定 The strike rate went up and down during the period from 1952 to 1967. ② There be ups and downs …有起有伏 Between 1972 and 1979, there were several ups and downs in (某方面). 11. 稳定 ① …remain steady/level/unchanged …保持稳定,几乎不变 The rate of …remained steady (fairly level/almost unchanged) during the four years from 1963 to 1967. ② …level off (vi.) *稳 The rise lasted for two weeks and then began to level off in August. 上升两周后,8 月份开始*稳。 12. ...form/comprise/make up/ account for + 数字 Women comprise more than 50% of the U.S. population. Females make up only 24% of the illustrations whereas males constitute 76%.
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图表式作文写作要求学生通过对数据和文字内容进行分析与讨论,系统准确地表达内容, 并得出令人心服的结论。 一、图表式作文形式: 1、以表格形式,将统计数据或被说明的事物直接用表格形式体现出来,即统计表。 2、以图形形式,可分为: (a) 以曲线形式表示数据变化的线形图; (b) 以条形方式表示数据的大小或数量之间的差异; (c) 以圆内扇形的大小表示总体内部结构变化的圆形图。 二、图表式作文三步骤: (一)开门见山:点明图表所反映的主题。 1、常用词汇: table, chart, figure(数字), graph(图表), describe(描述), tell, show, represent(代表) 等等。 2、常用句型: ① The graph/chart/table above shows …:上面图表表明… ② From the above graph/chart, it can be seen that...:从以上图表可以看出 ③ As is shown in the graph,...:如图所示 ④ The chart/table shows the differences between…: 图表表明…的区别。例如: ◆◆The table show the changes in the number of unemployment over the period from 1997 to 1999. 该表格描述了 1997-1999 年间失业数字的变化。 ◆◆As can be seen from the graph, the two curves(曲线) shows the fluctuation of the inflation in recent years. 如图所示,两条曲线描述了*年来通货膨胀的波动情况。 (二)分析数据间的主要差异及趋势,然后描写(在描写数据间变化及总趋势特征时,可采用 分类式或对比式以支持主题,并阐明必要的理由) 。注意层次。 1、常用转折,对比及比较的词汇: While(然而), but, on the contrary(正相反), however, compared with(与…相比), in contrast to(与…形成对照), as?as, the same as, be similar to, difference between, among, more than, less than 2、常用描写趋势变化的词汇: increase, rise, go up, reduce, drop, go down, fall, reach, remain, by/to, slowly, slightly, gradually, sharply, rapidly, the number of…, from…to 及比较级,倍数句型等。 3、常用句型: ⑴ Facts:

This year witnessed more imports of grain, accounting for 20% of the total. ⑵ Reasons: 1. The reason for…is that… 2. One may think of the change as a result of… 3. The change in?largely results from the fact that… 4. There are several reasons for this significant growth in…. 5. This brings out the important fact that… First,…. Second, …

② facts : 描述抓关键;对比的写法 tense–有明确过去时间状语 用过去时;无明确年 份,反映一种普遍现象或介绍情况的用现在时 ③ reasons:出现某种现象的原因 tense---一般现在时、一般过去时 ④ your own opinion/suggestions : tense--一般现在时、一般将来

Section B 应用实践
一、表格(table)类作文 请你根据下表提供的信息写一篇题为:Changes in Chinese People?s Diet 的短文。 注意:1、尽可能少引用数据; 2、词数 100 左右。

(三)列举法中常用的句型:?
First (ly),…; second (ly),…; third (ly), …? First of all, … ; then, … ; thirdly,…? To start with … ; moreover, … ; at last, …? To begin with, … ; most important of, … ; in addition, …? (四)表示因果的词语:? consequently, as a result, in consequence, therefore, hence, thus, accordingly, so, for, since? (五)表示递进过渡的词语:? besides, in addition ( to ), moreover, furthermore, what's more, to make things worse/ worse still / what’s worse(更糟糕的是)? (六)归纳总结或发表评论。 常用词汇: 1. in a word / in short /generally speaking/ in brief/ in conclusion / on the whole 2. It’s clear from the chart that… 3. In summary/ to sum up, it is important… 4. From what has been discussed above, we can draw the conclusion that… 5. Obviously, if we want to…, it is necessary… 6. There is no doubt that attention must be paid? 7. There fore, it can be concluded that… 8. Given this, it can be inferred that … 9. We can draw the conclusion that… 三、图表作文三个层次要求 第一层次的核心是“图文转换” ,即将图表的主要内容和信息用语言叙述出来。 第二层次是在简单要求的基础上对图表进行解读,写出图表实际要表达的内涵意义。 第三层次要求在前两个层次的基础上对图表的含义进行引申与议论,有的要求给出结论, 有的要求写出你自己的观点等等 四、图表式作文应注意的事项: 1、审题: (格式/人称/时态/要点/篇章结构) 2、篇章结构: ① summary: 对象、内容、时态 tense —一般过去时
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Item Grain Milk Meat Fruit/vegetables Total

1998 43% 13% 25% 19% 100%

1999 42% 14% 25% 19% 100%

2000 41% 14.5% 26% 18.5% 100%

2001 41% 14.5% 26.5% 18% 100%

2002 40% 15% 27.5% 17.5% 100%

分析:本统计表描述中国人民从 1998 年至 2002 年饮食结构的变化。短文可分为三小节:1) state the changes in people?s diet in the past five years;2) give possible reasons for the changes; 3) draw your own conclusions. 第一步:点明主题。 From the above table, we can see that there have been some changes in the diet of the Chinese people. 第二步:观察图表中数据的增减总趋势,分类式阐明,并说明原因。 Grain, the main food of the most people in China, is now playing a less important role. The amount of fruit and vegetables in the average person?s diet has also dropped by 1.5 percent from 1998 to 2002. The amount of milk and meat has increased. The changes in diet can be explained by several reasons. For one thing, with the development of the economy, people can afford to buy better foods. For another, people have realized the importance of a balanced diet. 第三步:归纳总结并得出结论。 In a word, the changes are the signs of the improvement in people?s lives. There is no doubt that there will be greater changes in people?s diet in the future. 二、柱形(bar chart)类作文 某城市*年每百人中手机用户增长示意图

film goer / TV watcher 电影/电视观众
80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1999年 2001 2006
120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 Number of TV watchers Number of film goers

分析: 根据所给图表,简要描述某城市*年每百人中手机用户增长情况,并试分析其增长原因 第一层次的核心是“图文转换” ,即将图表的主要内容和信息用语言叙述出来。 第二层次是在简单要求的基础上对图表进行解读,写出图表实际要表达的内涵意义。 第三层次要求在前两个层次的基础上对图表的含义进行引申与议论,有的要求给出结论,有的 要求写出你自己的观点等等。 As is shown in the bar chart above, more and more people have mobile phones in recent years. In 1999, only twenty in a hundred had mobile phones in some cities.In 2001, The number of the people who had mobile phones was ten times as many as in 1999. In 2001, a half of the persons in a hundred had mobile phones. While in 2006 ,it jumped to 80. There are several reasons for the increase of the number of people having mobile phones. Firstly, the technology of making mobile phones is changing rapidly. Secondly, people?s income had been increasing quickly. Thirdly, mobile phone are useful in people?s life. They can communicate with others very conveniently. To sum up, we can see that there will be more and more people using mobile phones in the future. 三.曲线(graph)类作文 根据所给图表,写一篇题为“电影与电视”的短文。短文须包括以下要求: A、电影观众人数(thousand 为单位)呈逐年下降趋势; B、电视观众人数越来越多(原因:方便、经济、选择范围) ; C、然而还是有人喜欢看电影(原因:气氛、娱乐) 。 注意:1、短文须包括主要内容,可适当增减,使内容连贯; 2、词数 100 左右; 3、开头语已写好。 参考词汇:decrease v.下降;atmosphere n.氛围;entertainment n.娱乐;
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From the table, we can see that film is giving way to TV in our city. had about 1 million TV watchers but only about 10 thousand film goers.

For example, in 1992,

there were less than 10 thousand TV watchers, more than 80 thousand film goers, while in 2002, we Why is the number of TV watcher increasing? It is because of the fact that televisions are quite common nowadays .And more and more people turn to TV for the reason that it is convenient and cheap so watchers have a wide range of programs for them to choose from. However at the same time, there are still some people who prefer films , they give their reasons that they like the atmosphere in the cinema as well as the entertainment. Anyhow, as far as I am concerned, between the two types of entertainments, I prefer watching TV. 四、扇形(pie chart)类作文 1、根据下面所给两幅图,完成 100 词左右的一篇短文(首句已给出) 。 参考词汇:expenses: n. 支出,费用 The average family income in the U.S. has increased.____________________.

18%Food & Drink 25%Housing Other

22%Food & Drink 32%Housing Other

注意:1. 对所给提示,不要简单翻译,可适当增加细节,使行文连贯。 2. 词数 150 左右。开头已给出,不计入总词数。 3. 植入广告: product placement The 2010 Spring Festival Gala has set records for TV commercial rates, which accordingly has caused heated discussions due to product placement in the programmes. _____________________________________________________________________________

Percentage of Family in 1997

Average

Percentage of Average Family Expenses in 2002

The Average Family Expenses 分析: 第一步:点明本圆形图所表明的主题。 According to the two pie charts, we can know that the average family income in the U.S. has increased. The way the average family spends its income has also changed. 第二步:描述两个圆形内数据间的变化极其原因。 In 1997, 25% of the income was spent on housing and 18% on food and drink. 57% was used to meet all other expenses. In 2002, 32% was spent on housing, a big increase. Food and drink consumed 22%. The remaining expenses amount to 46%. It may because that as the development of people?s living standards, the use on food , drink and housing are also increasing. 第三步:总结。 It’s clear from the charts that as incomes increase people can afford to live more comfortably and eat more. 2、2010 年央视春晚的广告收入创新高,但节目中的植入广告引发了热议。最*,某网站举 行了一次题为“对今年春晚植入广告的态度”的调查,请根据以下饼图(pie chart) 所示信 息用英语写一篇短文,并提出你自己的看法。 通过审题抓住主要数据反映的主要问题即所要表达的要点: 本篇书面题目中只有饼状图,在描述饼状图表所反映的内容时,要注意将正反两个方面的 意见合并起来叙述。整个表达需要包括下列内容:对饼状图的描述;你对此事的看法: (支持 或反对均可) 。

正面的意见
1. 20%的被调查者认为今年春晚广告的植入方式自然。 2. 15%的被调查者认为春晚植入广告是央视发展的需要。

负面的意见 3. 10%的被调查者认为今年春晚植入广告损害了央视形象。 4. 25%的被调查者认为今年春晚广告植入太多。 5. 30%的被调查者认为今年春晚植入的广告与节目无关。 我的观点(自拟)

Para 1 话题讨论的背景:题目中已经给出。 The 2010 Spring Festival Gala has set records for TV commercial rates, which accordingly has caused heated discussions due to product placement in the programmes.
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Para 2 对饼状图的描述。 。 Para 3 你对此事的看法: (支持或反对均可) 。

③25% of them even feel hurt seeing so much of it.

5.30%的被调查者认为今年春晚植入的广告与节目无关。
①30% of them think that the product placement have nothing to do with the programmes. ②30% of them don?t think that the product placement is related to/ is linked with the

变点为句
注意多重表达 1. 20%的被调查者认为今年春晚广告的植入方式自然。 ①20% of the people surveyed think that the product placement appears in the programs in a natural way. ②One-fifth of the people surveyed don?t feel annoyed at the product placement and even regard it as an natural part of the programs. ③One-fifth of the people surveyed feel comfortable with the product placement. ④20% of the people surveyed think it acceptable, for the product placement appears in the programmes naturally. 2. 15%的被调查者认为春晚植入广告是央视发展的需要。 ①15% of them think it is acceptable for CCTV to make profits from the product placement, which is of great benefit to the development of the TV station. ②15% of them hold the view that the practice satisfies the needs of CCTV?s development and can enable it to hold a better gala next year. ③15% of them argue that the profit made from the product placement can benefit CCTV?s future development. ④15% of the people surveyed think the practice is reasonable because holding such big events costs a lot. CCTV needs to make good use of the opportunity to earn enough money to finance its operation and development. ⑤15% of them consider it necessary for CCTV to make money from product placement, which is of great benefit to the development of CCTV itself.

programmes. ③Almost one third of the respondents complain that the irrelevant product placement makes the programs strange and ridiculous. ④Among the people surveyed, more than one third of them complain that the product placement has nothing to do with the programmes.

我的观点(自拟)
①适量的、巧妙的广告植入可以接受。 Personally, product placement in right amounts is acceptable if it doesn?t spoil the fun and art of the programs. Whatever CCTV does, it should take the audience?s feelings into consideration and put their needs in the first place. ②可以有插入式广告,但是不要不应该损害艺术,还应该考虑观众的感受。 In my opinion, product placement nowadays is almost unavoidable, but it should not damage the art of the show and should take the audience?s feelings into account.

连句成篇
连句成篇的关键是将相关要点的叙述进行合并,还要注意加过渡句,使文章流畅。如在 谈“我的观点”时要加上对图中反对意见的总结:如图所示:65%的被调查者持反感态 度,只有 35%的人表达赞成。 As the pie chart shows, the majority of the respondents are against the product placement while only 35% are supporters. ①如图所示:According to the pie chart; As is seen from the chart; It is illustrated in the chart that…; As is suggested from the chart. ②被调查者:the people surveyed; the respondents; the people involved in the survey; those who responded to the survey. ③反对:disapprove of; disagree with; be against; be opposed to; oppose; hold negative attitudes towards; think little of.
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3.10%的被调查者认为今年春晚植入广告损害了央视形象。
①10% of them think that great harm has been done to the image of CCTV. ②10% of them believe that the good image of CCTV will be greatly affected ③The rest 10% argues that the practice has greatly damaged CCTV?s image as the most important media in China because it?s the main channel for the general public to get information and entertainment. ④The rest 10% hold the view that great harm has been done to the image of CCTV.

4.25%的被调查者认为今年春晚广告植入太多。
①25% of them feel annoyed at too many commercials in the program. ②25% of them think product placement appears so frequently in the program that a quarter of the people surveyed feel rather disturbed.

④赞成:support; be for; be in favor of; approve of; agree; think much of The 2010 Spring Festival Gala has set records for TV commercial rates, which accordingly has caused heated discussions due to product placement in the programmes. As is shown in the pie chart, 20% of the people surveyed think that the product placement appears in the programs in a natural way. And 15% of them think it is acceptable for CCTV to make profits from the product placement, which is of great benefit to the development of the TV station. However, among the people surveyed, 30% of them think that the product placement have nothing to do with the programmes. 25% of them think product placement appears so frequently in the program that a quarter of the people surveyed feel rather disturbed. Furthermore, 10% of them think that great harm has been done to the image of CCTV. As the pie chart shows, the majority of the respondents are against the product placement while only 35% are supporters. Personally, product placement in right amounts are acceptable if it doesn?t spoil the fun and art of the programs. Whatever CCTV does, it should take the audience?s feelings into consideration and put their needs in the first place.

练*二 (2004 北京卷) 某学校对中学生课余活动进行了调查,结果如下。请根据图表 1 提供的信息描述学生每天 的课余活动,并针对图表 2 中任何一个数据所反映的情况写出你的一个看法。 注意:词数 120 个左右。 参考词汇:图表 chart 学生各项主要课余活动及所用时间
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0


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学生各项主要活动所占课余时间比例

每 日 所 用 时 间 ( 分 钟 )

46 25 12
务 劳 做 家 体 锻 用 电 脑 听 音 乐 看 电 视 做 作 业

30

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图表一

图表二

参考范文
The 2010 Spring Festival Gala has set records for TV commercial rates, which accordingly has caused heated discussions due to product placement in the programmes. As is shown in the pie chart, 20% of the people surveyed think it acceptable, for the product placement appears in the programmes naturally. And 15% of them consider it necessary for CCTV to make money from product placement, which is of great benefit to the development of CCTV itself. However, among the people surveyed, more than one third of them complain that the product placement has nothing to do with the programmes. 25% of them even feel hurt seeing so much of it. Furthermore, the rest 10% hold the view that great harm has been done to the image of CCTV. From the chart we can draw a conclusion that most of the people surveyed are against product placement in the programmes. In my opinion, product placement nowadays is almost unavoidable, but it should not damage the art of the show and should take the audience?s feelings into account.
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练*二 One possible version: Chart 1 shows the daily average amount of time the students of the school spend on different after-class activities. The students put the most time ---- 93 minutes---- into their homework, and next in line is watching TV, which takes up 46 minutes. They put in about the same amount of time listening to music and working on the computer, 34 minutes and 30 minutes each. While 25 minutes is spent on sports, only 12 minutes goes into housework.. As is shown on Chart 2, only 10% of the time is taken up with sports activities. I think the school should encourage the students to do more exercise after class. This way, they may be healthier and more energetic.

书面表达的高分秘诀
【摘要】高考英语书面表达第五档(很好)的评分标准为:覆盖所有主要内容;应用了较多 的语法结构和词汇;语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇 所致;应用简单的语句间的连接成分,使全文结构紧凑;达到了预期的写作目的。 从第五档的评分标准可以看出, 高考书面表达评分标准在语言的运用上对考生提出了更高 的要求。也就是说在考查考生语言准确性的基础上,进一步强调了用词的得体性、表达方式的 多样性。如果考生仅运用基础的词汇和基本的句型,不能体现出较强的语言运用能力,即使要 点齐全,表达没有语法错误,也不能给人很高的审美享受,因此很难在考试的评分中得到较高 档次。 评分标准给我们传递了另外一个信息:如果有意识地使用较高级词汇或复杂结构,即使有 些错误。也不扣分,仍属于最高档次。因此要使一篇*淡的文章变得丰富起来,从而提高书面 表达的档次,考生应着力从以下三个方面来增强书面表达的效果。

秘诀(一)学会使用较高级的词汇
词汇反映考生知识储备量的多少,也是衡量考生英语水*的一个重要标准。从评分标准 可知,运川高级的词汇对提高书面表达的分数至关重要。若能适当运用高级词汇,会给评判者 留下更加深刻的印象。 A.用较高难度的同义词取代较常见的“高频词”。 英语中有些词使用频率十分高,比如 interesting、good 等。这些高频词的使用很容易使文 章陷入“千人一面”的窘境中。而如果我们能够使用它们相应的同义渊、派生词或通过其他手段 来表达同义的效果,就可以做到“别开生面”,进而给文章带来清新的感觉。如: 1.Nell can be expected to conic to China around 28th,August. (换作高级词汇:Nell will be available to come to China around 28th,August.) 2.The pet dog is SO lovely that almost every body likes her. (换作高级词汇:The pet dog is so cute that almost everybody likes her.) 3.The question is really difficult to under stand. (换作高级词汇:The question is really confusing.) 4.He had to face all the possible difficulties. (换作高级词汇:He had to cope with all the possible difficulties.) 5.Our school lies in the suburb of the city. (换作高级词汇:Our school is located in the suburb of the city.) 6.Even if dinner looks a little bit terrible,it doesn?t mean it will taste that way. (换作高级词汇:Even if dinner looks disgusting,it doesn?t mean it will taste that way.) 7.I can?t find any way to solve the problem. (换作高级词汇:I can?t find any solution to the problem.) 8.No matter how much you have learned,there is always something you don?t know. (换作高级词汇:No matter how much you have learned, there is always stuff you don?t know.)
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B.用完整的短语或*语取代独立的单词。 总体而言,利用短语的难度比单词要大一些,因此适当运用短语更能显示出考生的写作功 力。如: 1.Suddenly I had a good idea. (换作短语:Suddenly I came up with a good idea.) 2.Take a moment to see what is happening around you. (换作短语:Take a moment to see what is going on around you.) 3.Everyone should do his or her best. (换作短语:Everyone is supposed to do his or her best.) 4.She is a famous dancer. (换作短语:She is well-known as a dancer.) 5.To twelve-year-old Hannah,this answer was too difficult to understand. (换作短语:To twelve-year-old Hannah,this answer didn?t make sense at all.) 6.Generally,our friendship remained within four classroom walls. (换作短语:For the most part,our friendship remained within four classroom walls.) 7.What you do will be very important. (换作短语:What you do will make a difference.) 8.Because the weather was good,our journey was comfortable. (换作短语:Thanks to the good weather,our journey was comfortable.)

秘诀(二)学会使用较丰富的句式
固定句式(感叹句、复合结构、强调句型等) 、定语从句、现在分词短语等都属于较复杂 的语法结构。这些结构正确使用,可以使文章的语言充满层次感,从而较好地反映出写作者的 语言运用能力。如: A.使用固定句式 1.His purse was stolen but he had no time to call for help. (before 脂以连接有先后顺序的两个动作,故可以使用 before one could do sth。结构: His purse was stolen before he could call for help.) 2.Besides intelligence,the courage to believe in yourself can also bring success. (使用强调句结构:It is not intelligence alone that brings success,but also the courage to believe in yourself.) 3.The environment will never improve until everybody takes care of it. (使用倒装句结构:Not until everybody takes care of it,will the environment improve.) 4.I have made foolish mistakes. (使用感叹句式:What foolish mistakes I have made!) 5.We should keep quiet in the reading room. (使用不定式复合结构:It is good manners for us to keep quiet in the reading-room.) 6.It is difficult to find a job when the population is large. (使用比较级结构:The larger the population is,the more difficult it is to find a job.)

B.使用现在分词结构 现在分词结构可以作伴随、原因等多种状语,因此几乎在任何文章中都可以用得上。现在 分词短语可以使句子的表达更加简洁、生动,而且也使上下文两个动作的关系衔接更加紧密。 如: 1.Nowadays,we can easily travel from one place to another and this bridges the gap among different races or cultures. (换作现在分词短语:Nowadays,we can easily travel from one place to another,thus bridging the gap among different races or cultures.) 2.People worked together on the assembly line.They moved quickly and efficiently. (换作现在分词短语:People worked together on the assembly line, moving quickly and efficiently.) 3.Many teenagers sit at their computers all day long and watch their favorite TV shows. (换作现在分词短语:Many teenagers sit at their computers all day long,watching their favorite TVshows.) C.使用定语从句 定语从句, 尤其是非限制性定语从句, 向来是语言知识运用的难点, 因此定语从句的使用, 不仅能使上下文更加流畅,同时也能充分展示出写作者运用较复杂的语法结构的能力。如: 1.One morning I went fishing in the river.By the river two women were washing clothes. (使用定语从句: One morning I went fishing in the river where/by which two women were washing clothes.) 2.My favorite living writer is Roddy Doyle.I think he is a genius. (使用定语从句:My favorite living writer is Roddy Doyle, who I think is a genius.) 3.The book took her about a year to write.It is pretty fast for her. (使用定语从句:The book took her about a year to write,which is pretty fast for her.) 4.My aunt bought me a book.The title of the book is All about the USA. (使用定语从句:My aunt bought me a book whose title is All about the USA.)

秘诀(三)学会使用恰当的连接词
书向表达心该注意“上下文的连贯性”,并能“有效地使用语句问的连接成分,使全文结构 紧凑”。这里所说的连贯性,就是指通过连接词(包括并列连词、从属连词和连接性副词) 、非 谓语动词短语等语法成分,使两个或多个意义相互关联的事情或观点在同一个句子内得以表 达,从而使整个段落或篇章浑然一体,连贯流畅。常见的连接词通常可以用来表示以下几种关 系: 1.*行或递进关系; 2.转折关系; 3.目的或因果关系; 4.层次、顺序关系; 5.例举关系; 6.解释说明关系; 7.归纳、总结关系。 A.表示*行或递进关系的连接词通常有: also, well(as), the same time, as at besides, both.. . and.. further more, addition(to), ., in more over,similarly,worse still 等。如: 1.In addition to these subjects,Mr. Wang also taught us English and politics.
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2. By the time I got the third floor, was tired and at the same time feeling lonely.Worse I still,Dad missed a step and fell,sending my new suitcases roiling down the stairs. B.表示转折关系的连接词通常有: although,but,however,nevertheless,on the contrary,otherwise,to the opposite,yet 等。如: I had an auto-repair man once, who on these intelligence tests couldn?t possibly have scored over 80. Yet,when anything went wrong with my car,I hurried to him and he always fixed it. C.表示目的或因果关系的连接词通常有: as a result,because(of),consequently, due to,now that, since,so,therefore,thus 等。 如: I couldn?t phone you because I hadn?t got your number. D.表示层次、顺序关系的连接词有: after(that),before,first(ly),second(ly),third(ly),at last,finally,later on,next,then, on one hand…,on the other hand 等。如: Some people point out that the emphasis on the surgical treatment of disease has some clear disadvantages.First,it attracts interest and money away from the question of prevention.Second,it causes the costs of general hospital care to rise.Third,doctors are encouraged to perform surgery even on patients for whom an operation is unnecessary. E.表示例举关系的连接词通常有:for example,for instance;for one thing,for another, such as 等。如: There are plenty of good deals available—people under 25,for example,can get fare discounts of up to 50%. F.表示解释说明关系的连接词通常有: in other words,that is 等。如: Some wines have ??proprietary” names that is to say,their names were created by the producers. G.表示归纳、总结关系的连接词通常有: as a result,briefly,in a word,in brief,in short,on the whole,to sum up 等。如: 1.This,in brief,is the official view of the trade unions. 2 .He has trouble concentrating on anything and his mental health is temporarily damaged.In short,he can?t get the benefits of rest. 以上仅仅从三个角度强调了优秀的书面表达所必备的基本要素。其实,考场上优秀的书面 表达既要具备内容上的充实感,又要注重形式上的审美感。 概括起来说,在内容上要注意以 下几个方面: 1.注意句型多样化,使文章丰富多彩; 2.合理使用长短句,使文章错落有致; 3.用好并列复合句,使文章流畅连贯; 4.适当点缀特殊句,使文章清新悦目。在形式上也要注意卷面的形象美和段 落结构的布局美。 总之,好的文章并非纸上谈兵“谈”来的,没有扎实的语言基础,没有大量的写作实践是写 不出好文章的。临考之际,同学们除了了解必要的文章写作技巧外,更重要的是要学会模仿。




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